Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, became king of the Franks in 768, king of Italy in 774, and in 800 became the first Holy Roman Emperor. Like his forefathers, Charlemagne stayed off Muslim incursions into Europe. He is credited with the desire to spread learning and revive Roman administration and style in architecture. Carolingian refers to the family line of Charlemagne, the father of Europe. Charlemagne retained Alcuin of York, an Anglo Saxon, to direct a school and scriptorium at the palace in Aachen. Other centers of learning and writing later included Reims, Salzburg, Mainz, and Bobbio. Carolingian manuscript text is referred to as Carolingian Minuscule. The opening display letters are in gold and the main script is referred to as Caroline minuscule.